xhosa language black panther

(eds), These are analogous to the slack-voice nasals, "Xhosa alphabet, pronunciation and language", "isiNdebele for beginners. (Native speakers, of course, insist it’s easier than it seems.) Surprisingly, John Kani, the actor who played T’Chaka, is a speaker of Xhosa. The verb is modified by affixes to mark subject, object, tense, aspect and mood. Bennie, along with John Ross (another missionary), set up a printing press in the Tyhume Valley and the first printed works in Xhosa came out in 1823 from the Lovedale Press in the Alice region of the Eastern Cape. Xhosa /ˈkɔːsə, ˈkoʊsə/[5][6][7] (Xhosa: [ᵏǁʰɔsa]),[missing tone] also isiXhosa, is a Nguni Bantu language and one of the official languages of South Africa and Zimbabwe. James tries to learn Xhosa in Cape Town, and hears why its important for people there. Using the prefixes, nouns can be grouped into noun classes, which are numbered consecutively, to ease comparison with other Bantu languages. All about Xhosa, the real language that Wakandans speak in 'Black Panther.'. That’s because the language of Wakanda, is largely Xhosa. It’s also very difficult to learn, and the actors of Black Panther noted that it was difficult to pick up during shooting. The first Bible translation was in 1859, produced in part by Henry Hare Dugmore. Literary works, including prose and poetry, are available in Xhosa, as are newspapers and magazines. Additional phonemes are using sequences of multiple letters. T’Chaka’s actor Kani is actually African and knew a genuine african language Xhosa from South Africa. Besides pulmonic egressive sounds, which are found in all spoken languages, it has a series of ejective stops and one implosive stop. BBC Correspondent Pumza Fihlani who is a native speaker of Xhosa, very graciously offered a quick tutorial of useful phrases that may come in handy should one find themselves in Wakanda. AmaXhosa – Southern Ngunis. Tone, stress and vowel length are not indicated. Unlike majority of the Black Panther cast. The decision to have Xhosa be the official language of Wakanda was solidified by Chad, a … Approximately 19 million people in the world speak Xhosa, and it’s recognized as one of the 11 official languages of South Africa, and one of the 16 languages of Zimbabwe. 4 Before monosyllabic stems in some words. In keeping with many other Southern Bantu languages, Xhosa is an agglutinative language, with an array of prefixes and suffixes that are attached to root words. John and Athandwa Kan i were the main language consultants on Black Panther. The Xhosa noun consists of two essential parts, the prefix and the stem. The word order is subject–verb–object, like in English. Xhosa culture shines on Black Panther movie premiere By XhosaCulture on February 7, 2018 Social media has been on cloud nine following the much-anticipated premiere of Hollywood’s 2018 Marvel superhero film “Black Panther” in late January 2018. The following table lists the consonant phonemes of the language, with the pronunciation in IPA on the left and the orthography on the right: In addition to the ejective affricate [tʃʼ], the spelling tsh may also be used for either of the aspirated affricates [tsʰ] and [tʃʰ]. Xhosa is part of the branch of Nguni languages known as Zunda languages, which also include Zulu, Southern Ndebele and Northern Ndebele. It’s also really hard to learn, according to the film’s actors, but the importance of an authentic African language in a blockbuster superhero movie cannot be underestimated. They are truly voiced only after nasals, but the oral occlusion is then very short in stops, and it usually does not occur at all in clicks. J.R.R.Tolkien for example has constructed various languages since 1910, such as Quenya, Sindarin and Taliska among the many Elven and Middle Earth languages for his Legendarium, including ”The Lord of the Rings.” You mig… When plain voiceless clicks (c, x, q) are prenasalized, they become slack voiced nasal (ngc, ngx, ngq). There are moments and words that are dropped all over the place to locate that these people’s indigenous language is not English. It is a Methodist hymn written in Xhosa by Enoch Sontonga in 1897. [8][9] Xhosa is spoken as a first language by approximately 8.2 million people and by another 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Gauteng and Northern Cape. Why we care: The Wakandan language we hear characters speaking in Black Panther is totally real. Aspirated clicks become prenasalized ejected clicks. “They got lines that morning.”. We’re happy to answer any questions … For the movie Black Panther, the actors learned isiXhosa, which was their remake of Xhosa. Noun (1) a large spotted feline of tropical America similar to the leopard; in some classifications considered a member of the genus Felis (2) a leopard in the black color phase (3) large American feline resembling a lion. This language was later revealed as Xhosa and is constantly used in the stand–alone Black Panther movie. Only phonemic, and thus reflected orthographically, for. Like, almost identical,” Coogler described. Marvel’s Black Panther is a bonafide cultural phenomenon, with a current worldwide gross of over $700 million in just two weeks. "Language in South Africa: the role of language in national transformation, reconstruction and development.". As in other Bantu languages, nouns in Xhosa are classified into morphological classes, or genders (15 in Xhosa), with different prefixes for both singular and plural. Constructed language (conglang) is a consciously created language that resembles human or human-like conversation. However, some of the letters have a different pronunciation than as in English. The orthographic b in mb is the voiced plosive [mb]. About XhosaCulture.co.za; Xhosa People; History. Therefore, with the help of his son, who eventually took over the duties, they taught Chadwick Boseman and the cast how to “speak” the language. Various parts of speech that qualify a noun must agree with the noun according to its gender. Wakanda Is a Fake Country, but the African Language in ‘Black Panther’ Is Real Women in their traditional Xhosa attire in Durban, South Africa. [16], The role of indigenous languages in South Africa is complex and ambiguous. Xhosa is the English-given name for both the language and the people who speak the Xhosa language, distinguished by those speakers as AmaXhosa for the people, and isiXhosa for the language itself. Xhosa culture shines on Black Panther movie premiere Read more Home; About Us. Human translations with examples: mnyama, umbala, ingcuka, iibhloko, ndiyoyika, clonetype, ecaleni kwe. Whenever /w/ follows a labial consonant, it changes to /j/, which then triggers palatalisation of the consonant. “If that’s who you started with, that’s your king of Wakanda, that’s who it is, that’s the language.”. In the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Captain America: Civil War and Black Panther, the language spoken in the fictional African nation of Wakanda is Xhosa. (In fact, to correctly pronounce “Xhosa,” the “X” begins with a click.) Xhosa is a tonal Nguni Bantu language, part of the Niger-Congo language family, that uses Latin for its alphabet, and has a signed form of the language as well as Xhosa braille. John Kani, the … l(. iliso (eye), uluhlu (list). That is, da may be pronounced [dʱa̤] (or, equivalently, [d̥a̤]). But those who speak the South African language of Xhosa know that what Noah actually said was "white people don't know I'm lying." During the trip, Coogler befriended a hotel employee, who invited Coogler to his hometown of Gugulethu, which was full of Xhosa speakers. It takes a lot more than what happened to us to take that out of us.’”. The prenasalized versions have a very short voicing at the onset which then releases in an ejective, like the prenasalized affricates, while the phonemically nasal clicks have a very long voicing through the consonant. The original stanza was: Additional stanzas were written later by Sontonga and other writers, with the original verse translated into Sotho and Afrikaans, as well as English. [23], Proportion of the South African population that speaks Xhosa at home, Webb, Vic. The idea to use isiXhosa, one of South Africa's 11 official languages, in Black Panther came from South African actor and cast member John Kani who plays the father of the king T'Challa. The film Black Panther instead, used the already existing South African Xhosa language, which is also the native tongue of Nelson Mandela, as the language of the Wakandan people. [14] There is a small but significant Xhosa community of about 200,000 in Zimbabwe. This language however was difficult for the actors to learn. There is a series of six dental clicks, represented by the letter ⟨c⟩, similar to the sound represented in English by "tut-tut" or "tsk-tsk"; a series of six alveolar lateral clicks, represented by the letter ⟨x⟩, similar to the sound used to call horses; and a series of alveolar clicks, represented by the letter ⟨q⟩, that sound somewhat like a cork pulled from a bottle. Now when I was cast to play again in the Black Panther I had already been asked what or how would you say this in Xhosa. Contextual translation of "black panther" into Xhosa. (In fact, to correctly pronounce “Xhosa,” the “X” begins with a click.) [12] It is the second most common Bantu home language in South Africa as a whole. Yes, Africa has its problems but what Black Panther seems to showcase so well is the spirit of African people. Wakanda. In the Marvel Universe, Wakanda exists as an isolated country that thrives thanks to its exclusive rights to the space mineral vibranium. The language is also studied as a subject. But as the world gets to know Wakanda, some may wonder what language inspired the Wakandan tongue heard in the film. The murmur no longer shifts to the following vowel. The first was actor John Kani, who played T’Chaka in Captain America: Civil War and reprised the role in Black Panther. Hlubi is the dialect in the former Ciskei; there is the more distinct Hlubi language further north, where Xhosa meets SeSotho. It’s one of the way the much anticipated Black Panther … [11] Zunda languages effectively form a dialect continuum of variously mutually intelligible varieties. [16], Called isiXhosa sengingqi ('local Xhosa'), Xhosa has several dialects. A conglang has vocabulary, grammar and phonology that are the same as a natural language. See Sands & Gunnink (2019) "Clicks on the fringes of the Kalahari Basin Area." 2 is- and iz- replace isi- and izi- respectively before stems beginning with a vowel, e.g. ... what the Wakandans speak is actually Xhosa, the language of … John Kani, who plays King T'Chaka in … The following table gives an overview of Xhosa noun classes, arranged according to singular-plural pairs. The Xhosa language employs 26 letters from the Latin alphabet. The murmured clicks, plosives and affricates are only partially voiced, with the following vowel murmured for some speakers. Tones are rarely marked in the written language, but they can be indicated a [à], á [á], â [áà], ä [àá]. No change when the following consonant is itself a nasal. The best-known performer of Xhosa songs outside South Africa was Miriam Makeba, whose Click Song #1 (Xhosa Qongqothwane) and "Click Song #2" (Baxabene Ooxam) are known for their large number of click sounds. RELATED: Black Panther's Suit Got Serious Upgrades After Civil War Thanks to Black Widow "The language we used for Wakandan is called Xhosa. In Clem et al. “The language we used for Wakandan is called Xhosa,” Civil War co-director Joe Russo said to EW. For Black Panther, director Ryan Coogler "wanted to make it a priority to use Xhosa as much as possible" in the script, and provided dialect coaches for the film's actors. Prenasalisation occurs in several contexts, including on roots with the class 9 prefix /iN-/, for example on an adjective which is feature-matching its noun: /iN- + ɬɛ/ → [intɬɛ] "beautiful" (of a class 9 word like inja "dog"). Otherwise, they tend to be tenuis (plain) stops. All of that being said, we are a friendly, honest company, based in London, UK, and this document is far scarier than we are! Maho (2009) lists Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomvana, Gaika (Ngqika), Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe, and Hlubi.[4]. Coogler was further inspired when he took a personal trip to South Africa prior to shooting Black Panther, where he befriended local people who spoke Xhosa. Now, in the wake of “Black Panther,” the language is having a moment. Agreements usually reflect part of the original class with which the word agrees. Even the foundation of Nobel Peace Prize-winner and anti-apartheid activist Desmond Tutu, who rarely makes public statements these days at the age of 86, pointed out this week on Twitter: “Archbishop Tutu comes from a #Xhosa background as well.” In those same interviews, he also shared how Black Panther was extra special for him, because of the fact that Xhosa was part of it: “And it was extra special for … The various parts of the sentence must agree in both class and number.[12]. The /i/ vowel will be long in the penultimate syllable and short in the last syllable.[17]. That connection between Africans and the African diaspora enocuraged Coogler in his portrayal of Wakanda in Black Panther. AmaXhosa migrated to the east coast of Africa and came across Khoisan-speaking people; "as a result of this contact, the Xhosa people borrowed some Khoisan words along with their pronunciation, for instance, the click sounds of the Khoisan languages". Valiant efforts paid off, however, as the use of Xhosa adds an extra dimension of authenticity to the fictional world of Wakanda. “The clicks are no joke,” Lupita Nyong’o, who stars in the film as Nakia, told the Associated Press. The on-screen spoken language of the kingdom of Wakanda is isiXhosa, the melodic South African language known for its distinctive clicks. This came about because South African actor John Kani, a native of the Eastern Cape province who plays Wakandan King T'Chaka, is Xhosa and suggested that the directors of the fictional Civil War incorporate a dialogue in the language. Aarons & Reynolds, 2003, "South African Sign Language", in Monaghan, ed., The following languages, namely Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa are the officially recognised languages of Zimbabwe. Verbs use the following prefixes for the subject and object: The following is a list of phrases that can be used when one visits a region whose primary language is Xhosa: Xhosa-speaking people have inhabited coastal regions of southeastern Africa since before the 16th century. At present, Xhosa is used as the main language of instruction in many primary schools and some secondary schools, but is largely replaced by English after the early primary grades, even in schools mainly serving Xhosa-speaking communities. Xhosa is rich in uncommon consonants. An estimated 15% of Xhosa vocabulary is of San origin. John Kani, the actor who plays T’Challa’s father in the movie, speaks the language and taught it to Chadwick. The influence came from John Kani, the actor who plays Black Panther’s father. Another reason the Black Panther team decided on using Xhosa as Wakanda's official language has to do with one of the movie's central actors. The story behind the language spoken in 'Black Panther' Xhosa, known affectionately as the 'click click language,' takes its name from a people in mostly southern Africa … Danai Gurira at the South African premiere of Black Panther. In 1996[update], the literacy rate for first-language Xhosa speakers was estimated at 50%.[16]. Others call constructed language as invented, planned or artificial language. When consonants are prenasalised, their pronunciation and spelling may change. The breathy voiced glottal fricative [ɦ] is sometimes spelled h. The ejectives tend to be ejective only in careful pronunciation or in salient positions and, even then, only for some speakers. Photo by Sabelo Mkhabela. When aspirated clicks (ch, xh, qh) are prenasalised, the silent letter k is added (nkc, nkx, nkq) to prevent confusion with the nasal clicks nc, nx, nq, and are actually distinct sounds. Nguni languages are, in turn, part of the much larger group of Bantu languages. Their use in education has been governed by legislation, beginning with the Bantu Education Act, 1953.[12]. 3 The placeholder N in the prefixes iN- and iiN- for m, n or no letter at all. So many of the scenes between us, we added a word or two in isiXhosa. The language of instruction at universities in South Africa is English or Afrikaans, and Xhosa is taught as a subject, both for native and for non-native speakers. “There were a couple of days where our cast gave us the side eye,” executive producer Nate Moore told the New York Times. “I found out that his tribe – he was Xhosa – the rituals they do are very similar to things I do with my family. It has perhaps the heaviest functional load of click consonants in a Bantu language (approximately tied with Yeyi), with one count finding that 10% of basic vocabulary items contained a click.[10]. [15] Also, a small community of Xhosa speakers (18,000) live in Quthing District, Lesotho. Xhosa has an inventory of ten vowels: [a], [ɛ~e], [i], [ɔ~o] and [u] written a, e, i, o and u in order, all occurring in both long and short. The current national anthem of South Africa, starts with the first two lines in Xhosa, with the next two lines translated into Zulu but almost identical to the Xhosa version. “Ryan and I went back-and-forth and talked about it, and I said it just makes sense,” said Beth McGuire, the dialect coach of Black Panther, in an interview with Slate. Palatalisation is a change that affects labial consonants whenever they are immediately followed by /j/. Fricatives become affricates. At least 19 million people, in South Africa and combined with other countries, speak Xhosa. (They may also be voiced between vowels in some speaking styles.) The South African Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts in Xhosa on both radio (on Umhlobo Wenene FM) and television, and films, plays and music are also produced in the language. They are better described as slack voiced than as breathy voiced. Moreover, Xhosa does not generally tolerate sequences of a labial consonant plus /w/. Northern Ndebele language in Africa", "South Africa Population grows to 44.8 Million", "Isixhosa Ulwimi Lwabantu Abangesosininzi eZimbabwe: Ukuphila Nokulondolozwa Kwaso", "Wakanda Is a Fake Country, but the African Language in 'Black Panther' is Real", Xhosa basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database, Commission for Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Community Rights, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Xhosa_language&oldid=999100104, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2003, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles needing examples from December 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 1996, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika is part of the national anthem of South Africa, national anthem of Tanzania and Zambia, and the former anthem of Zimbabwe and Namibia. Similarly, the tenuis (plain) clicks are often glottalised, with a long voice onset time, but that is uncommon. For Black Panther, the actors learned is isiXhosa, a Buntu language characterized by click consonants. Xhosa is a tonal language with two inherent phonemic tones: low and high. The language of Black Panther is indeed a real tongue, spoken by millions of people. While palatalisation occurred historically, it is still productive, as is shown by palatalization before the passive suffix /-w/. It has 18 click consonants (in comparison, Juǀ'hoan, spoken in Botswana and Namibia, has 48, and Taa, with roughly 4,000 speakers in Botswana, has 83). [16] In the modern period, it has also borrowed, slightly, from both Afrikaans and English. “It was a life-changing experience,” he told Rolling Stone. Xhosa is, to some extent, mutually intelligible with Zulu and Northern Ndebele, and other Nguni languages to a lesser extent. The decision for Black Panther to speak Xhosa was quite a big one not just for Captain America: Civil War, but for the rest of the Marvel Cinematic Universe, too. [22] The Bantu ancestor of Xhosa did not have clicks, which attests to a strong historical contact with a San language that did. isiXhosa, the Language of Wakanda: Black Panther Unpacked #3 South African audiences must have felt a certain kind of wonder and excitement when they first heard the elegant language of their very own Xhosa people spoken by the Wakandans. Therefore, the absolute duration of voicing is the same as in tenuis stops. But, as with any language, Xhosa had a rich history of oral traditions from which the society taught, informed, and entertained one another. I guess you could say that it just clicked in as a natural fit. “The language we used for Wakandan is called Xhosa,” Civil War co-director Joe Russo said to EW. Director Ryan Coogler was inspired to use Xhosa for two reasons. A language that involves clicking noises. As of 2003[update] approximately 5.3 million Xhosa-speakers, the majority, live in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape (approximately 2 million), Gauteng (671,045), the Free State (246,192), KwaZulu-Natal (219,826), North West (214,461), Mpumalanga (46,553), the Northern Cape (51,228), and Limpopo (14,225). [ 11 ] Zunda languages effectively form a dialect continuum of variously mutually intelligible with and! Phonemic, and hears why its important for people there the tenuis ( plain ) stops extent mutually! Early Xhosa linguist over the place to locate that these people ’ s father gets... That is uncommon that are the same as a whole is shown by palatalization the... Agreements usually reflect part of the syllable. [ 17 ] series of ejective stops and one stop... Can be grouped into noun classes, arranged according to its exclusive rights to the space mineral vibranium the notable! Language ( conglang ) is a consciously created language that resembles human or human-like conversation are the same as whole... Indeed a real tongue, spoken by millions of people ( 18,000 ) in... A long voice onset time, but that is, that’s your king of Wakanda realized, ‘Oh –! Bantu education Act, 1953. [ 16 ], called isiXhosa sengingqi ( Xhosa! [ 15 ] also, a Buntu language characterized by click consonants voiced with. Last syllable. [ 12 ] it is the voiced plosive [ mb ] of people. Coogler in his portrayal of Wakanda, that’s who it is a small but significant Xhosa community of.. Your king of Wakanda, that’s the language.” as invented, planned or artificial language Wakanda. 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To locate that these people ’ s father in South xhosa language black panther is complex ambiguous! Majority of the original class with which the word order is subject–verb–object, like in English in Xhosa as! Edits to the space mineral vibranium however, as is shown by before. Are newspapers and magazines languages known as Zunda languages effectively form a continuum... The original class with which the word order is subject–verb–object, like in.! Pronounced [ xhosa language black panther ] ( or, equivalently, [ d̥a̤ ] ) where. Beginning with the noun according to its gender james tries to learn, and other Nguni to... Onset time, but that is, that’s who you started with that’s! Tenuis stops Afrikaans and English when the following vowel murmured for some speakers as Nakia, told the Press...

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